
Glossary  Symbols
One or more symbols are used to express mathematical formulae. A partial list of symbols (currently being developed) is as follows:
Symbols 
Meanings 
+ 
positive, addition 
 
negative, subtraction 
× 
mutliplication 
÷ 
division 
* 
asterisk, multiplcation (computers) 
/ 
slash, forward slash, division (computers) 
⁄ 
fractional slash 
± 
plus and minus (value can be of either sign) 
° 
degree, angle 
≡ 
identical to 
= 
equal sign 
< 
less than 
<= 
=< 
less than or equal to 
> 
greater than 
>= 
=> 
greater than or equal to 
≈ 
approximately equal to 
% 
per cent (n out of 100 parts) 
‰ 
per mille (n out of 1,000 parts) 
‱ 
per myriad (n out of 10,000 parts), per diem, basis point 
¤ 
Currency (but not a specific currency) 
# 
octothorpe, number sign, crosshatch 
( 
) 
opening and closing parenthesis (respectively), brackets 
ƒ 
florin, function 
π 
pi (the constant ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter) 
√ 
square root, radical sign 
∞ 
infinity 
… 
horizontal ellipsis 
′ 
imperial feet, minutes, [single] prime (not an apostrophe) 
″ 
imperial inches, seconds, double prime (not a quotation mark) 
Advanced mathematical operators:
Symbols 
Meanings 
∀ 
for all 
∂ 
partial differential 
∝ 
proportional to... 
∇ 
nabla, backward difference 
∏ 
nary product, product sign, prod (not the same as the Greek capital letter for "pi" despite its similar appearance) 
∑ 
nary sumation, sum (not the same as the Greek capital letter for "sigma" despite its similar appearance) 
− 
minus sign, subtraction 
∗ 
asterisk operator 
∠ 
angle 
∟ 
right angle 
⊥ 
up tack, orthogonal to, perpendicular 
∧ 
logical "and," wedge 
∨ 
logical "or," vee 
∫ 
integral 
∆ 
increment 
∴ 
therefore 
∼ 
tilde operator, varies with, similar to (not the same as the "tilde" character despite its similar appearance) 
≈ 
almost equal to, asymptotic to 
≅ 
approximately equal to 
≡ 
identical to 
≤ 
lessthan or equal to 
≥ 
greaterthan or equal to 
≠ 
not equal to 
∩ 
intersection, cap 
∪ 
union, cup 
⊂ 
subset of 
⊃ 
superset of 
⊄ 
not a subset of 
⊆ 
subset of or equal to 
⊇ 
superset of or equal to 
∈ 
element of 
∉ 
not an element of 
∋ 
contains as member, ni (as in Monty Python's The Knights of "Ni") 
∃ 
there exists 
∅ 
empty set, null set, diameter 
⊕ 
circled plus, direct sum 
⊗ 
circled times, vector product 
¬ 
not 
⋅ 
dot operator (not the same as the Georgian comma, a.k.a., "middle dot," despite its similar appearance) 

